Nuclear Devices

Nuclear Devices


Medical Imaging

Medical imaging refers to the techniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts thereof) for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease) or medical science (including the study of normal anatomy and function). As a discipline and in its widest sense, it is part of biological imaging and incorporates radiology (in the wider sense), radiological sciences, endoscopy, (medical) thermography, medical photography and microscopy (e.g. for human pathological investigations).

In the clinical context, medical imaging is generally equated to Radiology or "clinical imaging" and the medical practitioner responsible for interpreting (and sometimes acquiring) the images is a radiologist. Diagnostic radiography (see Radiography) designates the technical aspects of medical imaging and in particular the acquisition of medical images. The radiographer or radiologic technologist is usually responsible for acquiring medical images of diagnostic quality, although radiologists perform some radiological interventions.

As a field of scientific investigation, medical imaging constitutes a sub-discipline of biomedical engineering, medical physics or medicine depending on the context: Research and development in the area of instrumentation, image acquisition (e.g. radiography), modeling and quantification are usually the preserve of biomedical engineering, medical physics and computer science; Research into the application and interpretation of medical images is usually the preserve of radiology and the medical sub-discipline relevant to medical condition or area of medical science (neuroscience, cardiology, psychiatry, psychology, etc) under investigation. Many of the techniques developed for medical imaging also have scientific and industrial applications.

Medical imaging is often perceived to designate the set of techniques that non-invasively produce images of the internal aspect of the body. In this restricted sense, medical imaging can be seen as the solution of mathematical inverse problems. This means that cause (the properties of living tissue) is inferred from effect (the observed signal). In the case of ultrasonography the probe consists of ultrasonic pressure waves and echoes inside the tissue show the internal structure. In the case of projection radiography, the probe is X-ray radiation, which is absorbed at different rates in different tissue types such as bone, muscle and fat.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

A Magnetic Resonance Imaging instrument (MRI scanner) uses powerful magnets to polarise and excite hydrogen nuclei (single proton) in water molecules in human tissue, producing a detectable signal which is spatially encoded resulting in images of the body. In brief, MRI involves the use of three kinds of electromagnetic field: a very strong (of the order of units of teslas) static magnetic field to polarize the hydrogen nuclei, called the static field; a weaker time-varying (of the order of 1 kHz) for spatial encoding, called the gradient field(s); and a weak radio-frequency (RF) field for manipulation of the hydrogen nuclei to produce measurable signals, collected through an RF antenna.

MRI, or "NMR imaging" as it was originally known, has only been in use since the early 1980s. Effects from long term, or repeated exposure, to the intense static magnetic field are not known.

Gamma Camera

A gamma camera is a device used in nuclear medical imaging also known as nuclear medicine, to view and analyze images of the human body of the distribution of medically injected, inhaled, or ingested gamma ray emitting radionuclides.

A gamma camera consists of one or more flat crystal planes or, detectors, optically coupled to an array of photomultiplier tubes, the assembly is known as a "head", mounted on a gantry. The gantry is connected to a computer system that both controls the operation of the camera as well as acquisition and storage of acquired images.

The system accumulates events or, counts of gamma photons that are absorbed by the crystal in the camera. Usually a large flat crystal of sodium iodide with thallium doping in a light-sealed housing is used.

Positron emission tomography (PET)

Positron emission tomography is primarily used to detect diseases of the brain and heart. Similarly to nuclear medicine, a short-lived isotope, is incorporated into a substance used by the body such as glucose which is absorbed by the tumor of interest. PET scans are often viewed along side computed tomography scans, which can be performed on the same equipment without moving the patient. This allows the tumors detected by the PET scan to be viewed next to the rest of the patient's anatomy detected by the CT scan.

Projectional Radiography

Radiographs, more commonly known as x-rays, are often used to determine the type and extent of a fracture as well as for detecting pathological changes in the lungs. With the use of radio-opaque contrast media, such as barium, they can also be used to visualize the structure of the stomach and intestines - this can help diagnose ulcers or certain types of colon cancer.

Photoacoustic Imaging

Photoacoustic imaging is a recently developed hybrid biomedical imaging modality based on the photo acoustic effect. It combines the advantages of optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution for deep imaging in (optical) diffusive or quasi-diffusive regime. Recent studies have shown that photo acoustic imaging can be used in vivo for tumor angiogenesis monitoring, blood oxygenation mapping, functional brain imaging, and skin melanoma detection etc.


Tracers, as radioactive isotopes are sometimes called, have been described as the most useful research tool since the invention of the microscope in the 17th century. Physiologists using tracers, for instance, are learning where and at what speed physical and chemical processes occur in the human body.


Tomography is the method of imaging a single plane, or slice, of an object resulting in a tomogram. There are several forms of tomography:

  • Linear tomography: This is the most basic form of tomography. The X-ray tube moved from point "A" to point "B" above the patient, while the cassette holder (or "bucky") moves simultaneously under the patient from point "B" to point "A." The fulcrum, or pivot point, is set to the area of interest. In this manner, the points above and below the focal plane are blurred out, just as the background is blurred when panning a camera during exposure. No longer carried out and replaced by computed tomography.

  • Poly tomography: This was a complex form of tomography. With this technique, a number of geometrical movements were programmed, such as hypocycloidic, circular, figure 8, and elliptical.

  • Zonography: This is a variant of linear tomography, where a limited arc of movement is used. It is still used in some centres for visualising the kidney during an intravenous urogram (IVU)

  • Orthopantomography (OPT or OPG): The only common tomographic examination in use. This makes use of a complex movement to allow the radiographic examination of the mandible, as if it were a flat bone.

  • Computed Tomography (CT): It is a medical imaging method employing tomography where digital geometry processing is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation.

  • Atom probe tomography (APT)

  • Confocal laser scanning microscopy (LSCM)

  • Cryo-electron tomography (Cryo-ET)

  • Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT)

  • Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)

  • Electrical impedance tomography (EIT)

  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

  • Magnetic induction tomography (MIT)

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI

  • Neutron tomography

  • Optical coherence tomography (OCT)

  • Optical projection tomography (OPT)

  • Process tomography (PT)

  • Positron emission tomography (PET)

  • Quantum tomography

  • Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

  • Seismic tomography

  • Ultrasound assisted optical tomography (UAOT)

  • Ultrasound transmission tomography

  • X-ray tomography

  • Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT

  • Zeeman-Doppler imaging


Ultrasound uses high frequency sound waves of between 2.0 to 10.0 megahertz that are reflected by tissue to varying degrees to produce a 2D image, traditionally on a TV monitor. This is often used to visualize the fetus in pregnant women. Other important uses include imaging the abdominal organs, heart, male genitalia, and the veins of the leg. While it may provide less anatomical information than techniques such as CT or MRI, it has several advantages which make it ideal as a first line test in numerous situations, in particular that it studies the function of moving structures in real-time.

It is also very safe to use, as the patient is not exposed to radiation and the ultrasound does not appear to cause any adverse effects, although information on this is not well documented. It is also relatively cheap and quick to perform. Ultrasound scanners can be taken to critically ill patients in intensive care units, avoiding the danger caused while moving the patient to the radiology department. The real time moving image obtained can be used to guide drainage and biopsy procedures. Doppler capabilities on modern scanners allow the blood flow in arteries and veins to be assessed.

Nuclear Calculators

Rad Pro Calculator performs many nuclear calculations that are useful to the health physicist, radiological researcher, radio chemist, radiation safety officer, health physics technician (HP) and nuclear medicine professional. It calculates, among other things, radiation safety units conversions, gamma emitter dose rate and activity, gamma shielding equations, beta emitter dose rate and activity, dose-rates for x-ray machines and devices, with and without shielding, grams of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) from activity, decay and half life equations, bremsstrahlung x-ray calculations for beta interactions and uranium fuel loading ratios and uranium enrichment. Included are common isotopes for medical and research use such as P-32, Tc-99m and FDG / F-18. Eighty common nuclear medicine isotopes used for medical diagnostics and treatment were recently added to the decay list, including positron emitters used in PET scanning. The x-ray machine/device calculator allows the choice of empirical data or the use of known x-ray tube output. The shielding equations are the same ones in the ever-popular gamma isotope calculator.

Nuclear Fuel Cost Calculator calculates the official and the hidden cost of nuclear fuel: The market price for nuclear fuel does not necessarily include the future waste management costs linked to its production. The hidden costs may reach a multiple of the nominal costs!

Nuclear Fuel Population Health Risk Calculator calculates collective doses and health risks from the production of nuclear fuel. The release of radioactive radon gas from mines, mills And mill tailings is of major concern.

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